Author Guidelines

1. The following types of material will be considered for publication in the Journal (refer to guidelines for publication of research papers on the diseases not reported in India. 

PAPERS ON ORIGINAL RESEARCH COMPLETED, not exceeding 3,500 words (approximately 10-12 typed pages), should be exclusive for the journal. They should present a connected picture of the investigation and should not be split into parts.

SHORT RESEARCH NOTES not more than 1,500 words (about 4-5 typed pages), which deals with (a) research results which are complete but do not warrant comprehensive treatment, and (b) descriptions of new material or improved techniques, with supporting data. Such notes require no headed sections. Summary (not more than 80-100 words) is to be provided at the end of the text.

CRITICAL RESEARCH REVIEW pointing out lacunae in research and suggesting possible lines of future work.

Contributors are requested to ensure that the research papers or notes submitted for publications have a direct bearing on animal production or open up new grounds for productive research. Basic types of papers and notes which relate to investigations in a narrow specialized branch of a discipline may not form an appropriate material for this journal.

3.1 The manuscript of the article starts with the title. It should be brief, specific and informative. It should be phrased to identify the content of the article and include the nature of the study, and technical approach, which is necessary for key-word indexing and information retrieval. Title should be as concise as possible, and include the theme involved in the research when applicable. Abbreviations should be avoided in the title.

3.2 In addition, a SHORT TITLE not exceeding 50 characters including space should be provided separately for running headlines.

3.3 The BY-LINE should contain, in addition to the names and initials of the authors, the place where the research work was conducted. Naming an author implies that the person named is aware of the research work reported and agrees with and accepts responsibility for any results or conclusions reported. The address of the institution should include the name of the department/Division, institution, city, country and pin code. Present address be given as a footnote. In case, a paper has several authors from different institutions, key the author to the address with superscript Arabic numerals and present the additional addresses as footnotes at the bottom of the page, e.g., Present address: Give designation, present address of all the authors and email of corresponding author. Designation, Division of... ( 1email of all authors); 2Designation, Division of...( if second author is from different division). Designation, Division of...(if the author is from different place).

4. The ABSTRACT should be written in complete sentences and has not more than 250 words. It should contain a very brief account of the materials, methods, results, discussion and conclusion, so that the reader need not refer to the whole article except for details. It should not contain references to literature, illustrations and tables. The abstract should summarize pertinent results in concise way but understandable form. The abstract should start with a clear statement of the objectives of the research work and must conclude with one or two sentences that highlight important conclusions. "An abstract is defined as an abbreviated accurate representation of the contents of a document, preferably prepared by its author(s) for publication with it. Such abstracts are also useful in access [abstracting] publications and machine-readable databases".

4.1 Key-words: At the end of the abstract, list up to five to eight key words that best describe the nature of the research. Because major words in the title are not used in the subject index, appropriate words from the title (or synonyms) should be listed as key words.

5. Major headings are INTRODUCTION, MATERIALS AND METHODS, RESULTS AND DISCUSSION, and REFERENCES. Major headings of review papers or papers from symposia may deviate from this standard format; however, all papers must contain an abstract, key words, and an introduction. Abbreviations should be avoided in headings.

5.1 The INTRODUCTORY part should be brief and limited to the statement of the importance of the study reported, problem or the objective(s) of the experiment. It may be a brief justification of the research work and specify the hypotheses to be tested. The review of literature should be pertinent to the problem. Objective of the study should be discussed in view of latest references. Authorities for the latin binomial of every organism are not used in the title or summary, and only on the first mention in the main body of the text. Gene names and loci should be italic, proteins should be roman. Virus nomenclature (and acronyms) should follow the guidelines of the International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). The current report is: van Regenmortel MHV, Fauquet CM, Bishop DHL (Eds) (2001) Virus Taxonomy: Seventh Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy Viruses. San Diego: Academic Press. Authors are also advised to check the ITCV website for the latest information. Biological nomenclature, as laid down in the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria, and the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature should be followed. and websites may be referred for nomenclature. Chemical nomenclature should follow the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) definitive rules for nomenclature. No trade name should be used and Industrial products should be referred to by their chemical names (give ingredients in parentheses) at first mention. In the absence of a common name, use the full name or a defined abbreviation, in preference to a trade name. In case of anatomy and surgery articles please refer Nomina Anatomica, Nomina Histologica, Nomina Embryologica, Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria, and Nomina Anatomica cvium for nomenclature.

5.2 Relevant details should be given of the subject, MATERIALS AND METHODS, including experimental design and the techniques implied. Where the methods are well known, the citation of a standard work is adequate. All alterations of procedures must be explained. Experimental materials and statistical models should be clearly and fully described. Calculations and the validity of deductions made from them should be checked and validated by a statistician. When possible, results of similar experiments should be pooled statistically. Avoid to report a number of similar experiments separately. Units of measurement, symbols and standard abbreviations should conform to those recommended by the International Union of Bio-Chemistry (IUB) and the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). Follow the Metric measurements and dosages should be expressed entirely in metric units (SI units). In exceptional circumstances, others may be used, provided they are consistent. Give the meaning of all symbols immediately after the equation in which they are first used. Equations should be numbered serially at the right-hand side in parentheses. In general, only equations explicitly referred to in the text need be numbered. The use of fractional powers instead of root signs is recommended. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. In chemical formulae, valence of ions should be given as, e.g., Ca2+, not as Ca++. Isotope numbers should precede the symbols, e.g., 18O . The repeated writing of chemical formulae in the text is to be avoided where reasonably possible; in place of the name of the compound should be given in full. Exceptions may be made in the case of a very long name occurring very frequently or in the case of a compound being described as the end product of a gravimetric determination (e.g., phosphate as P2O5). Authors must certify that animals were cared for under guidelines comparable to those laid down by the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee.

5.3 The RESULTS AND DISCUSSION should preferably be combined to avoid repetition. Results should be presented in the tabular form and graphs when feasible but not both. The colour figures and plates, are printed in case only, when information would be lost if reproduced in black and white. Mean result with the relevant standard errors should be presented rather than detailed data. The data should be so arranged that the tables would fit in the normal layout of the page setup. Self- explanatory tables should be typed on separate sheets bearing appropriate titles. The tabular content should not exceed 20% of the total text. Any abbreviation used in a table must be defined in that table preferably as the footnote. Paginate the tables in respective series with the text. All tables should be cited in the text of the article. If an explanation is needed, use an abbreviation in the body of the table (e.g., DM) and explain clearly in footnotes what the abbreviation means. References to footnotes in a table are specified by superscript numbers, separately for each table. Superscript alphabets are used to designate statistical significance. Use a lower-case p to indicate probability values (i.e., p<0.05). In general, use numerals. When two numbers appear adjacent to each other, spell out the first (i.e., eight 1-day old chicks rather than 8 1-d old chicks). In a series using some numbers less than 10 and some more than 10 use numerals for all (i.e. 2 villages, 6 communities and 15 schools). Do not initiate a sentence with a numeral, it is better to spell it out or rearrange the sentence. Abbreviate the terms month (m), week (w), hour (h), minute (min) and second (sec) when used with a number in the text but spell them out when they are used alone. Do not use a hyphen to indicate inclusiveness (e.g., use 10 to 15 mg or wk 1 and 5 not 10-15 mg or wk 1-5). Use Arabic numerals with abbreviated units of measure: 12 g, 7 d, $10.00, 5% and numerical designations in the text: exp 2, group 4, etc. The images should be avoided if possible. The printing of figures needs additional payment of APC. If necessary, the author is required to submit high-resolution images, preferably with the initial submission but no later than revision stage. Electronic images (figures and schemes) must have a minimum resolution of 600 dpi for line drawings (black and white) and 300 dpi for colour or greyscale. Colour figures must be supplied in CMYK not RGB colours. Be ensured that the prepared electronic image files print at a legible size (with lettering of at least 2 mm). do not save the images as Portable Document Format (PDF). Please ensure that the figure is clearly labelled with its figure number. Original artwork: If you are unable to submit electronic artwork, please provide two sets of all figures as high-quality glossy prints at the size that they are to appear in print. One set should be unlabeled. The text content should elaborate on the tabular data, but not be repeated extensively within the text. Sufficient data, all with the index of variation attached, should be presented to allow the reader to interpret the results of the experiment. The discussion should interpret the results clearly and concisely in terms of proper mechanisms and should integrate literature results with the research findings to provide the reader with a wide base on which to accept or reject the hypotheses tested. Results and references to tables and figures already described in the RESULTS section therefore they should not be repeated in the DISCUSSION section.

5.4 The DISCUSSION should relate to the limitations or advantage of the author's experiments in comparison with the work of cited studies. Authors must obtain permission to reproduce any copyright material, and include an acknowledgment of the source in their article. They should be aware that the unreferenced use of the published and unpublished ideas, writing or illustrations of others, or submission of a complete paper under a new authorship in a different or the same language, comes under plagiarism. The Conclusion section should not be of more than one paragraph after the discussion. It should explain the implications of findings of this research on rural life in general terms. Abbreviations, acronyms, or citations should be avoided here. Though limited speculation is permitted, this section should also caution the reader against over extrapolation of results. For manuscripts with direct applications, this section will contain an interpretive summary. If results have no implications, this should also be stated.

5.5 A recent issue of The Journal of Rural Advances should be consulted for the methods of citation of References in the text as well as at the end of the article. Reference citations in the text are typed as follows: Martine (1971) or (Martine 1971); Black et al. (1974) or (black et al. 1974); Snedecor and Cochran (1994) or (Snedecor and Cochran 1994). Groups of references cited in a sentence in the text must be listed in chronological order as in the previous sentence.

5.6 REFERENCES lists should be given in alphabetic order. The reference list should be first sorted alphabetically by author(s) and secondly chronologically. For Journal Articles Author(s), year. Title. Journal title (full name and in italics) volume number (bold): page-page.

Bera I, Tyagi P K, Mir N A, Tyagi P K, Dev K, Sharma D and Mandal A B. 2019. Dietary supplementation of saponins to improve the quality and oxidative stability of broiler chicken meat. Journal of Food Science and Technology 56(3):2063-72.

For whole books Author(s), year. Title. (Ed.). Edition if any, Number of pages. Publisher, address.

Snedecor G W and Cochran W G. 1994. Statistical Methods, 6th edn, 491p. Iowa State University Press, Ames.

For chapters from books Author(s), year. Title. book title, editors (editors), Publisher, address. Page-page.

Clark J A and McArthur A J. 1994. Thermal Exchanges. Livestock Housing.1edn, pp. 97-122. (Eds) Wathes C M and Charles D R. CAB INTERNATIONAL, Wallingford, UK. For Symposium Devegowda G, Raju M V L N, Afzali N and Swamy H V L N. 1998. Mycotoxin picture world-wide: Novel solutions for their counteraction. Proceedings of 14th Alltech's Annual Symposium on Biotechnology in the Feed Industry. pp. 241-55. 5 May 1997. Bangalore.

Authors be ensured that all references in the text appear at the end of the paper and vice-versa, and that names and dates at the two places correspond.

6. All the articles are sent to referees for SCRUTINY and authors should meet criticism by improving the article.

7. Papers should be TYPE-WRITIEN on A4 paper, and double-spaced throughout (including references and tables) with a 5 cm margin at all the dimensions. Article (including illustrations) should be sent after a careful check-up of typographical errors.

8. Please upload the plagiarism checking report of your manuscript as supplementary file checked using popular software like iThenticate or Turnit-in.

9. Authors are requested consult The Council of Biology Editors Style Manual 7th edn, American Institute of Biological Sciences, Washington DC.

10. Proof-correction should be made in ink, in the margin. All queries marked in the article should be attempted and answered. Proofs are supplied for a check-up of the correctness of type-setting and facts. Excessive alteration may be charged to the authors. The proofs should be returned within 10 days.

11. Please click here to download article certificate and submit duly signed certificate (scanned copy only) may be attached online with article as supplementary file. Review Article Review articles on topical issues are invited from prominent scientists, peer-reviewed and published. Copyright Notice The copyright of the articles published in The Journal of Rural Advancement vests with the Journal, who has the right to enter into any agreement with any organization in India or abroad engaged in reprography, photocopying, storage and dissemination of information contained in these journals. The Journal of Rural Advancement has no objection in using the material, provided the information is being utilized for academic purpose but not for commercial use. Due credit line should be given to The Journal of Rural Advancement where information will be utilized.