The Journal of Rural Advancement <p><em>The Journal of Rural Advancement</em> (JRA) [<strong>ISSN: 2347-2561 (P)</strong> and <strong>2583-6102 (E)</strong>] is published, twice a year, i.e., in April and October, in the English language since 2013. JRA is published by (as an Official publication), the Institute for Development of Technology for Rural Advancement (IDTRA), run by DTRA Trust (Established in 2010; Registration No. 102/2010), Vrindavan, Distt. Mathura-281121 (U.P.) INDIA, a professional body dedicated to rural advancement. The journal started in the print version but now it is also available in the electronic version.</p> <p><strong>Indexing: </strong>The serial is a CAB International-indexed journal.</p> <p><strong>Licensing Statement: </strong>The content of articles may be quoted by users if they give due credit to the authors (CC BY). </p> <p><strong>Multi-dimensionality: </strong>The Journal of Rural Advancement addresses the multi-dimensions of rural life, including the aspects of agriculture, culture, economics, education, finance, health, philosophy, planning, policies, politics, science, society, welfare, etc.</p> <p><strong>Open access: </strong>The journal is open to all. </p> UPENG03889/2013 en-US The Journal of Rural Advancement 2347-2561 Agripreneurial Landscape in the Kumaon Region of Uttarakhand <p><em>By examining the socio-economic dynamics and constraints faced by agripreneurs, this study seeks to shed light on the transformative potential of agripreneurship in bolstering agricultural sustainability and rural livelihoods. While agricultural productivity thrives, marketing hurdles persist due to challenging terrains and inadequate infrastructure. Recent studies highlight the evolving landscape of agripreneurship globally, emphasizing sustainable, community-oriented agricultural practices. Furthermore, socio-economic, communication, and psychological attributes influence agripreneurs' decision-making and risk-taking abilities. Constraints such as inadequate marketing channels, price fluctuations, and technological limitations impede agripreneurs' endeavors. Agripreneurship, integral to agricultural development, fosters innovation, sustainability, and economic growth. Entrepreneurial ventures catalyze technological advancements, revolutionizing farming practices and enhancing productivity. Embracing entrepreneurship in agriculture not only boosts rural economies but also ensures food security and rural development. </em></p> Arpita S Kandpal Pankaj Kumar Ojha Copyright (c) 2024 The Journal of Rural Advancement 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 12 1 1 7 Etho-nutritional response of female white New Zealand rabbits during different quarters of the day <p><em>Twelve non-lactating female White New Zealand rabbits (3.25 ± 0.20 kg) were randomly selected and housed in separate cages without routine exercise and given 350 g of concentrates and alfalfa green food (ad-lib). An eight-day adaptation period was followed by a five-day behaviour experiment. The animals were observed for their general, specific, and excretion behaviors for 120 consecutive hours, divided into 24 slots of 5 hours each. The animals were observed at an interval of 15 minutes to fill up the behaviour inventory. The data was classified into four quarters of the day, i.e., morning (4–10 hours), noon (10–16 hours), evening (16–22 hours), and night (22-4 hours). For comparing the data, a two-way ANOVA with the replication technique was implemented. The highest sitting posture in the noon (85.69±1.66 m) and standing in the night (85.69±1.66 m); sleeping time in the noon (52.08±1.50 m), eating in the evening (20.00±1.94m), and resting in the night (70.97±2.08 m); and the highest frequency of faecal excretion in the morning (0.63±0.06 times per hour) and urine excretion in the night quarter (0.55+0.08 times per hour) were recorded. It can be concluded that one important component influencing the rabbit's behavior is the effect of different quarters of the day. In the quarter of the night, the rabbits were most active, followed by the morning and evening, whereas in the noon quarter of the day, they were least active.</em></p> Awadhesh Kishore Kesete Goitom Copyright (c) 2024 The Journal of Rural Advancement 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 12 1 8 14 Impact of milk fat content on the physico-chemical, and sensory characteristics of paneer <p><em>The present investigation was conducted to find out the impact of milk fat content on the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of paneer. Fresh cow and buffalo milk from nearby dairies was collected and separated in the laboratory. Cow and buffalo skim milk and creams were also used to standardize milk at various fat levels according to the needs of the experiments, i.e., buffalo milk testing 6.0 and cow milk testing 5.0, 4.5, 3.5, and 2.5% fat. As a coagulating agent, a 2.0% (w/v) concentration of synthetic citric acid was employed. The temperature of 80°C was reached after the coagulation process was finished. To make each batch of paneer, many three-liter batches of homogenized milk were prepared. The standard process was used to make the paneer, and yields were noted. Yield, moisture, titratable acidity, pH, fat, FDM, protein, lactose, ash, calcium, and phosphorus were among the chemical parameters examined for the paneer samples. Suitable methods of statistical analysis were applied to the data collected during the current study. The conclusion was that the decrease in the fat content of the milk used to prepare paneer declined in appearance, body and texture, color, taste, flavor, and overall acceptability; however, the variations in milk fat levels had no effect on the moisture absorption properties of paneer or the quantity of coagulants needed for milk coagulation. </em></p> Pravin Kumar P.K. Singh Copyright (c) 2024 The Journal of Rural Advancement 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 12 1 15 23 Blood profile and carcass traits of Kadaknath broilers fed on various levels of azolla (Azolla pinnata) <p><em>The present study examined the blood composition and carcass traits of Kadaknath broilers raised in the Poultry Research Centre, School of Agriculture, ITM University, Gwalior, between September and November 2023 for a total of 56 days. They were fed varied amounts of azolla (Azolla pinnata) powder. A total of 120 Kadaknath day-old-chicks were divided into 30 flocks. The flocks were randomly allotted to five treatments with six replications. They were housed in a deep litter system with eight hours of darkness and sixteen hours of light. Starter (week 1; 23% CP and 3000 kcal/kg ME), grower (weeks 2–6; 22% and 3100 kcal/kg), and finisher (weeks 7-8; 20% CP and 3200 kcal/kg ME) feeds were provided to the broilers in the control group (</em><em>Az</em><em><sub>00)</sub></em><em>. The sun-dried azolla powder replaced the ration in the test groups at 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0 per cent in </em><em>Az</em><em><sub>2.5</sub></em><em>, </em><em>Az</em><em><sub>5.0</sub></em><em>, </em><em>Az</em><em><sub>7.5</sub></em><em>, and </em><em>Az</em><em><sub>10.0</sub></em><em>, respectively. On the final day of the experiment, the haemeto-biochemical profiles of the blood and carcass characteristics were compared. The blood parameters in </em><em>Az</em><em><sub>5.0</sub></em><em> were higher than the others: PCV (43.40±1.31%), TLC (66.83±0.47 n/µl), TEC (1.40±0.03 n/µl), basophils (1.69±0.04%), heterophils (18.72±0.18%), and haemoglobin (13.77±0.10 g/dl). Az<sub>5.0</sub> had higher live weight (1151±9 g), dressed weight (888±17 g), eviscerated weight (831±36 g), eviscerated weight (73.1±2.6%), and heart weight (1.65±0.1 g). The study concluded that the broiler ration may be replaced at a 5 per cent level with sun-dried azolla powder to increase the productivity of the Kadaknath broilers.</em></p> Awadhesh Kishore Copyright (c) 2024 The Journal of Rural Advancement 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 12 1 24 33 Antibiotic and antifungal characteristics of moringa (Moringa oleifera) <p style="text-align: justify; margin: 0in 0in 12.0pt 0in;"><em>To summarize the antibacterial, antifungal, and wound-healing properties of moringa (Moringa oleifera), a review of the literature has been conducted. It has been shown that Moringa oleifera is a rich source of antioxidants, phenolic compounds, and a variety of other biochemicals e.g. tannins, saponins, flavonoids, and steroids. In the plant, these organic substances have potent antimicrobial, antibacterial, and antifungal properties. The features of Moringa oleifera, present in its leaves, flowers, pod, bark, and roots, developed wound-healing properties in a variety of forms, including fresh, powdered, and extracts.</em></p> Tushar Sharma Copyright (c) 2024 The Journal of Rural Advancement 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 12 1 34 49 Support of spirituality and traditional culture to achieve sustainable development goals <p><em>‘Sustainable Development Goals’ is the Mission set by the United Nations to reduce poverty and provide basic needs to ensure food security and better quality of life. However with a wide variation in the socio-economic status among different sections of the societies, people with better knowledge, resources and social status are able to dominate others, constantly widening the economic disparity. The exploitation of the poor by rich has been going on ever since the origin of the human races. Knowing the attitude to crave for more, the spiritual scholars of different religions have developed their moral code of conduct, which is expected to be followed to maintain harmony and happiness within the community. If some of the basic principles such as selfless service, control on greed, non-violence, honesty and compassion, etc. are practiced in our daily life, the earth would have plenty of food and other resources to meet the needs of all, and the weaker sections of the society need not struggle to earn their livelihood. Similarly, if all the persons engaged in implementing the sustainable development programme take their jobs as their moral obligation, then the chances of success of the programme will be certain. Hence, spiritual orientation should be an integral part of the Sustainable Human Development.</em></p> Narayan G. Hegde Copyright (c) 2024 The Journal of Rural Advancement 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 12 1 50 59 Role of Ramakrishna Mission’s health programme in the transformation of rural health structure <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>NGOs are pivotal in addressing global issues, notably health, with malnutrition being a significant concern, especially in rural areas. Child malnutrition is alarming in some regions, emphasizing the importance of child and maternal health worldwide. While India has effective health policies, NGOs like the Akshaya Patra Foundation and the Ramakrishna Mission complement governmental efforts. The Ramakrishna Mission prioritizes health, believing in eradicating hunger and understanding the link between nutrition and well-being. Emphasizing rural child, adolescent, and maternal health, it exemplifies health as a pillar of social progress.</em></p> Puneet Kumar Ojha Pankaj Kumar Ojha Copyright (c) 2024 The Journal of Rural Advancement 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 12 1 60 70 Innovations in Indian agriculture: nourishing diets through farming systems <p style="text-align: justify; margin: 0in 0in 10.0pt 0in;"><em>India faces the challenge of ensuring both food security and dietary diversity for its growing population. This paper explores how innovative farming systems are being adopted to cultivate a future where healthy diets go hand-in-hand with sustainable agriculture. Crop diversification, biofortification, climate-smart practices, and technology adoption are key strategies being implemented. Despite the promise, challenges remain in terms of access to resources and behavior change. By addressing these and fostering collaboration, India can create a more sustainable and nutrition-secure food system for all.</em></p> Pankaj Kumar Ojha Puneet Kumar Ojha Copyright (c) 2024 The Journal of Rural Advancement 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 12 1 71 74 Sustainable crop production in stress condition: strategies and management <p><em>Stress in plants refers to external conditions that adversely affect growth and development and result in poor crop productivity. A wide range of environmental stresses reduce or limit the productivity of crops. These are two types of environmental stresses that are encountered by plants: abiotic stress and biotic stress. Abiotic stress causes the loss of major crops and includes salinity, flooding, drought, extreme temperature, heavy metals, etc. On the other hand, biotic stress is caused by attacks by various pathogens such as fungi, bacteria, nematodes, herbivores, etc., and plants are in nature; they cannot move from these environmental cues. Though the plants have developed different mechanisms in order to overcome these threats of abiotic and biotic stresses, they sense the external stress environment, get stimulated, and then generate appropriate cellular responses. On the basis of different scientists’ perceptions, it is expected that the stresses may show their severity under climatic change. Now, there is a strong need to develop tolerant crop varieties to overcome stress like salinity, drought, and waterlogging conditions. Therefore, to reduce stress problems, plant breeders, pathologists, and agronomists should come forward to mitigate these stresses, so according to the past publication, it is clear that in the future, research should be done on integrated methodologies to mitigate stresses so that sustainable production can be achieved</em></p> Aman Parashar Jai Dev Sharma Copyright (c) 2024 The Journal of Rural Advancement 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 12 1 75 83