The Journal of Rural Advancement <p>The Journal of Rural Advancement (JRA) (ISSN: 2347-2561 (P) and 2583-6102 (E) RNI No.: UPENG03889/2013) is published, twice a year i.e. in April and October in the English language since 2013. JRA is published by (as an Official publication), the Institute for Development of Technology for Rural Advancement (IDTRA) run by D<span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">TRA Trust (Established in 2010; Registration No. 102/2010), Vrindavan, Distt. Mathura-281121 (U.P.) INDIA, a professional body dedicated to rural advancement. The journal started in the print version but now it is also available in the electronic version. </span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">Indexing</span></strong></p> <p><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">The serial is a CAB International-indexed journal. </span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">Licensing Statement</span></strong></p> <p><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">The content of articles may be quoted by the users if they give due credit to the authors (CC BY). </span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">Multi-dimensionality</span></strong></p> <p><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">The Journal of Rural Advancement addresses the multi-dimensions of rural life including the aspects of agriculture, culture, economics, education, finance, health, philosophy, planning, policies, politics, science, society, welfare, etc.</span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">Open access</span></strong></p> <p><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">The journal is open access to all. </span></p> en-US (Prof. Awadhesh Kishore) (Mr. Santosh Shrivastava) Sat, 17 Jun 2023 08:02:37 +0530 OJS 60 Effect of farmyard manure, nitrogen and phosphorus on productivity, growth, water use efficiency and economics of tomato production in Hamelmalo, Eritrea <p><em>In Eritrea the average yield of tomato is meager as farmers usually use inadequate and inappropriate proportions of nutrient inputs; therefore, to develop a better understanding of nutrient management, a field experiment was conducted at the research area of Hamelmalo Agricultural College, Eritrea with the objective to determine the effect of farmyard manure (FYM) and chemical fertilizers on growth, yield, water use efficiency and economics of tomato production. The experiment was laid down in a split plot design with FYM as the main plot; nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) combination levels in subplots with three replications. The FYM treatments were 0 and 10 t ha<sup>-1</sup>. N and P combination treatments were 0%, 75%, 100%, 125% and 150% of the recommended N and P dose. The recommended dose of N and P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> locally used was 120 kg and 80 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. All the data collected were analyzed using Gen-stat software. The results showed that 10 t FYM ha<sup>-1 </sup>+ 150 kg N and 100 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> ha<sup>-1</sup> had a significant effect on tomato yield, followed by 150 kg N and 100 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> ha<sup>-1</sup> alone. The water use efficiency of tomatoes was also significantly affected by the application of both FYM and inorganic fertilizers (N and P). The highest water use efficiency of tomato was recorded with the application of 10 t ha-1 FYM + 150 kg N and 100 kg P2O5 ha-1. Gross margin per nakfa analysis showed that applying 10 t FYM ha-1 along with 150 kg N and 100 kg P2O5 ha-1, was more economical.</em></p> Goitom Semere, Woldeslassie Ogbazghi , Balwan Singh Copyright (c) 2023 The Journal of Rural Advancement Sat, 01 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Evaluation of different strains of oyster mushrooms for yield performance <p><em>Oyster mushrooms have palatable, beneficial and pharmaceutical values and can grow on byproducts used as a substrate, which are considered waste obtained from agriculture, households, and industries. These can effortlessly degenerate agricultural residues, can be cultivated in a varied temperature range, require less time to grow and are not frequently attacked by various pathogens and pests. A research study was conducted to evaluate six strains of Pleurotus species (PL-1, PL-2, PL-3, PL-4, PL-5 and PL-6) for yield performance using wheat straw as substrate. The highest yield was produced by PL-3 (414.4 g/bag), followed by PL-2 (399.8 g/bag) and PL-5 (379.2 g/bag), whereas the lowest yield was found in the PL-4 (192.6 g/bag) strain. The maximum biological efficiency was recorded in PL-3 (69.07 per cent) followed by PL-2 (66.62 per cent) and PL-5 (63.2 per cent) strains. Hence, it can be concluded that oyster mushrooms hold the potential for the valorization of agro-industrial waste among urban and rural communities, not only minimizing environmental impact but also fostering economic development and self-sufficiency.</em></p> Arun Kushwaha, K.P.S. Kushwaha Copyright (c) 2023 The Journal of Rural Advancement Sat, 01 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Comparative nutritional values of dinanath grass and sweet sorghum fodder at the post-flowering stage for crossbred heifers <p><em>The feeding value of dinanath grass with sorghum fodder at the post-flowering stage was compared. In the present study, sixteen crossbred heifers (274±11 d; 85.3±4.9 kg) were grouped in 8 pairs based on their age and live weight. One animal from each pair was randomly allotted to one of the two groups, T<sub>1</sub> and T<sub>2</sub>. In T<sub>1</sub>, the animals were offered dinanath grass fodder, whereas in T2, sorghum fodder was offered ad libitum and the fodders were enriched with urea at 0.4 and 0.2% on a fresh weight basis, respectively. They were also given 1 kg of concentrate mixture (40% wheat grain; 40% groundnut cake; 20% husk), 30 g of common salt, and 30 g of chalk daily for 13 weeks. The bodyweight of the animals was calculated by the weekly multiplication of the length (cm) and heart girth (cm) of the animal divided by 11200. After 21 days of adaptation, a 7-day digestibility trial was conducted to compare the intake and digestibility of nutrients. The samples were chemically analyzed for proximate principles using standard techniques. The data were subjected to statistical analysis using the paired ‘t’ test. It can be concluded that dinanath grass and sorghum fodders are both equally inferior in nutritive value at the post-flowering stage and may not be continued for a long period as the sole feed without nutrient supplementation.</em></p> Awadhesh Kishore Copyright (c) 2023 The Journal of Rural Advancement Sat, 01 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Evaluation of Lentil Genotypes for Resistance of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lentis <p style="text-align: justify;"><em><span style="color: #252525;">Lentil (</span><span style="color: #252525;">Lens culinaris</span><span style="color: #252525;"> Medikus Sub sp. </span></em><em><span style="color: #252525; font-style: normal;">Culinaris</span></em><em><span style="color: #252525;">) is a highly nutritious pulse crop grown globally as a rainfed crop in the winter season and also a cheap source of protein for rural people. Fusarium wilt, caused by </span></em><em><span style="color: #252525; font-style: normal;">Fusarium oxysporum</span></em><em><span style="color: #252525;"> f.sp. lentis (Fol), is a major fungal disease that affects lentil crops, leading to a significant yield reduction. In this study, 50 lentil genotypes were screened against a highly aggressive Fol isolate (AGLF-11) under greenhouse conditions. Out of the tested genotypes, 14 showed high susceptibility, 29 showed moderate susceptibility, 5 exhibited moderate resistance and only 2 genotypes (L 7920 and DPL 58) showed resistance to the Fol isolate. Thus, the two genotypes (L 7920 and DPL 58) hold promise for breeding programmes aimed at developing lentil varieties with improved resistance to this devastating fungal disease, which could help mitigate yield reduction and ensure the continued cultivation of this highly nutritious pulse crop for ensuring nutritional security among rural people.</span></em></p> Anil Kumar, Ravi Ranjan Kumar, Anand Kumar Copyright (c) 2023 The Journal of Rural Advancement Sat, 01 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Dairy husbandry: the contribution of different species to the earnings of small farmers <p><em>Dairy husbandry has excellent potential for ensuring food security for small farmers in India. However, this sector has been facing various challenges, such as a poor genetic base, a scarcity of feed resources and inadequate health care services. Genetic breeding to produce a higher milk yield plays a very significant role in increasing the profitability of dairy animals. Indian farmers presently have options to maintain different types of milking animals, such as nondescript cows with a very low milk yield of 1–2 kg milk per day, cows of recognized indigenous breeds, with the average daily milk yield ranging between 2 and 6 kg/day, crossbred cows with 6–8 kg/day, or buffaloes of nondescript or recognized breeds, with an average milk yield of 3–6 kg/day. Although the average milk yield is a reliable parameter for the selection of dairy animals, farmers are either compelled by their ability to invest in high-milking animals or influenced by the information available to these types of animals about their ability to adapt to local climatic conditions, their ability to tolerate heat stress and diseases, and the quality of milk before making their choice. However, in the absence of valid facts, many farmers end up making the wrong choice of animals and fail to optimize their income. This paper reviews the merits of different types of milking animals to enable them to make the proper choice.</em></p> Narayan Hegde Copyright (c) 2023 The Journal of Rural Advancement Sat, 01 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Mushrooms: a review of health benefits, cultivation techniques, and nutritional analysis <p style="text-align: justify; margin: 0in 0in 12.0pt 0in;"><em><span style="color: black;">The nutritional content of mushrooms, as well as the possible health advantages of mushrooms, are gaining widespread awareness around the globe. This paper provides an overview of the nutritional profile of Pleurotus mushrooms as well as production methods and prospective applications for these mushrooms. The advantages to health, such as the existence of bioactive substances, therapeutic characteristics, and hypolipidemic effects, are discussed in the article. It is emphasized that Pleurotus species are capable of growing on a wide variety of agro-wastes and lignocellulosic materials, and a number of various culture substrates and growth circumstances are explored. In addition, the essay examines the significance of genetic identification and fingerprinting techniques for the purpose of both the enhancement of strains and the manufacture of commercial quantities. The practices of environmentally responsible farming as well as the methods used by indigenous peoples for mushroom growing are discussed. In general, this article enlightens the reader on the nutritional and health benefits of Pleurotus mushrooms, as well as their potential for production and their function in environmentally responsible agriculture.</span></em></p> Anil Kumar, Arun Kushwaha Copyright (c) 2023 The Journal of Rural Advancement Sat, 01 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Technological advancements in fodder production: a review <p><em>Livestock is a sub-sector of agriculture that plays an important role not only in the Indian economy but also in national nutritional security, particularly for small and marginal farmers. But the production potential of our animals is not comparable with that of the global average due to many reasons, feed and fodder deficiency being the major one. The feed shortage in India is due to the unavailability of land for quality fodder cultivation. Thus, there is a burning need to adopt innovative methods not only in production but also in the preservation of fodder. Unconventional methods in fodder production, including seed technology, system approaches, hi-tech farming and adopting mechanization in fodder production, can be considered for their advancement. Being the leader in cattle and buffalo populations and increasing livestock populations, current fodder production in our country is not able to meet the requirement. Improved technology in fodder preservation, including technical interventions in hay and silage like supplementation with additives for quality hay and silage, preserving as haylage and balage and making dehydrated products like pellets and cubes, can also be considered for increasing quality fodder production and utilization. Land under fodder cultivation is static and has little scope for expansion due to reduced per capita availability and human priorities. So, technological advancements both in the production and preservation of fodder should essentially be adopted to fight against fodder scarcity.</em></p> Awadhesh Kishore, Aman Parashar, Jai Dev Sharma Copyright (c) 2023 The Journal of Rural Advancement Sat, 01 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Pharmacological and nutritional benefits of mushrooms <p><em>Mushrooms are the valuable food source with diverse nutritional and medicinal properties. This review highlights their potential as a rich source of bioactive compounds and explores their pharmacological effects. Mushrooms exhibit anti-cancer, anti-bacterial, anti-oxidative, anti-viral, anti-diabetic, and anti-allergic properties. They contain essential nutrients, including proteins, vitamins, minerals, and nutraceuticals. Different types of mushrooms possess unique compositions and medicinal properties. The bioactive compounds found in mushrooms, such as triterpenes, polysaccharides, and amino acids, contribute to their pharmacological activities. Mushrooms are a source of macronutrients, B-complex vitamins, vitamin D, and minerals, and they demonstrate various biological activities, including anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. Understanding the nutritional and pharmacological value of mushrooms can drive their application in functional foods and therapeutic interventions, benefiting urban as well as rural individuals with degenerative and metabolic diseases.</em></p> Arun Kushwaha, Anil Kumar Copyright (c) 2023 The Journal of Rural Advancement Sat, 01 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Unlocking the Potential: Integrating Mushroom Cultivation into Farming Systems for Promoting Sustainable Agriculture and Livelihood Enhancement <p>The growing of mushrooms is increasingly being recognized as a sustainable agricultural technique that possesses considerable potential for enhancing people's standard of living of rural people. The production of mushrooms as part of agricultural systems offers a comprehensive approach that maximizes the use of available resources and encourages the practice of sustainable agriculture. This academic essay presents a thorough analysis of the financial, environmental, and social advantages that may be gained from incorporating mushroom production into existing agricultural practices. The article emphasizes major results and gives advice for successful implementation, drawing upon pertinent research as its source material.</p> Arun Kushwaha Copyright (c) 2023 The Journal of Rural Advancement Sat, 01 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0530